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Materi Grammar dalam soal toefl

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MATERI GRAMMAR DALAM TOEFL

Mendapatkan skor tinggi dalam tes TOEFL menjadi keinginan banyak orang, terutama mereka yang ingin melanjutkan pendidikan ke jenjang yang lebih tinggi baik di dalam maupun luar negeri. Tentu bukan hal yang mudah untuk mendapatkan skor tinggi dalam tes TOEFL. Ada beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan sebelum kita mengikuti tes TOEFL.

Berikut ini beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan sebelum mengikuti tes TOEFL:

  1. Kenali keahlian bahasa apa saja yang akan diujikan dalam tes TOEFL;
  2. Perhatikan batasan waktu dalam mengerjakan soal;
  3. Kenali tipe-tipe soal berikut perintah pengerjaannya;
  4. Pelajari tips untuk mengerjakan tipe soal tertentu;
  5. Jawablah semua pertanyaan, jangan ada yang dikosongkan;

 

Pengertian grammar harus dipahami terlebih dahulu untuk Anda yang mulai ingin memperdalam ilmu tata bahasa inggris dengan baik dan benar. Ada beberapa versi arti dari grammar baik dari kamus di dalam negeri maupun kamus atau literatur yang berasal dari luar negeri.

Pengertian grammar menurut wikipedia adalah “grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. Linguists do not normally use the term to refer to orthographical rules, although usage books and style guides that call themselves grammars may also refer to spelling and punctuation.”

Translationnya “Tata bahasa adalah seperangkat aturan struktural yang mengatur komposisi klausa, frase, dan kata-kata dalam setiap bahasa alami yang diberikan. Istilah ini mengacu juga pada studi tentang aturan tersebut, dan bidang ini mencakup morfologi, sintaksis, dan fonologi, sering dilengkapi dengan fonetik, semantik, dan pragmatik. Ahli bahasa biasanya tidak menggunakan istilah untuk merujuk kepada aturan ortografis, meskipun penggunaan buku dan panduan gaya yang menyebut diri tata bahasa juga dapat merujuk pada ejaan dan tanda baca”

“Definisi Grammar” versi kamus john echols : Grammar : (kb) 1. Tata bahasa, 2. Buku tata bahasa. Sedangkan pengertian grammar menurut Oxford  learner’s pocket dictionary adalah : book that describes the rules for forming words and making sentences.

Grammar 

1. Letter / Alphabet = merupakan huruf atau alfabet seperti A, B, C, D, E, F, G dan-lain-lain

2. Words = adalah kumpulan dari letter/alphabet yang membentuk/memiliki arti, seperti contoh : eat, drink, dan lain-lain

3. Phrase = merupakan kumpulan dari words, dan sudah memiliki arti, namun belum sempurna karena belum memiliki Subjek.
Phrase dalam bahasa inggris terbagi menjadi 4 bagian :
1. Noun phrase = susunan Noun + noun contoh : Book Store atau Adjective + Noun = Contoh : Beautiful Girl
2. Adjective Phrase = susunan adverb + adjective contoh : so happy, very cool
3. Adverb Phrase = susunan adverb + adverb contoh : so well, so fast, very fast, dll
4. Verb phrase = sususan auxilary (tobe) + ordinary (kt.kerja asli) = contoh is studying, will follow, dll

4. Sentences : merupakan susunan dari words, yang memiliki arti dan sudah sempurna karena memiliki subjek.
contoh : I study English (saya belajar bahasa inggris)

 

Rumus Grammar

 

Jika belum, yuk kita review rumus-rumus grammar yang sudah temen2 pelajari. Biar tambah mantap ilmu grammarnya…:)

1. Rumus Modal            : S + Modal + V1 + O
contoh : I will go to school (saya akan pergi ke sekolah)

2. Rumus Kalimat Perintah : V1 + Objek/adverb,
contoh : Open the window! (bukalah jendela itu!)

3. Rumus Simple present   : S + V1 + O
contoh : We always play football everyday (Kita selalu bermain bola setiap hari)

4. Rumus Pasif Voice      : S + to be (is,am,are) + V3 :
contoh : The Ball is bought by me (bola itu dibeli oleh saya)

5. Rumus Causative Verbs  : S + make/have + V1 + O,
contoh : They have me study hard (Mereka menyuruh saya belajar dengan giat)

6. Rumus Conditional Sentence tipe 1 : if + simple present, simple future,
contoh if i have much money, i will go to Bali Island.

7. Rumus Conditional Sentence tipe 2 : if + simple past, past future,
contoh : if i had a car, i would give him money (jika saya memiliki mobil, saya akan memberinya uang)

8. Rumus Conditional Sentence tipe 3 : if + past perfect, past future perfect,
contoh : if i had had money, i would have bought a house (jika saya punya uang, saya akan membeli rumah)


Contoh test structure grammer pada TOEFL:
From the marked areas A, B, C and D, identify the one that is wrong, correct it.
1. (A) Their most favorite hotel is the Hotel Regent. (B) It is near the beach and (C) is a very cozy hotel. It is (D) not too expensive, too.
2. I like (A) these kind (B) of hotels too. I don’t (C) go for the big, noisy and (D) expensive sort.
3. The Amelia Hotel (A) is good as the Radan Hotel, (B) in fact. Actually, I (C) would rather go to the Amelia. (D) It’s closer to the town.
4. (A) He prefers the (B) Radan Hotel because (C) he feels the service (D) is more better.
5. The Weather Bureau (A) is announced that the rain (B) will continue for (C) another 36 hours. People (D) are advised to stay indoors.
6. Visibility (A) on the roads (B) are very poor. Thus, drivers are advised (C) to be careful, especially when (D) driving at night.
7. She was (A) kind enough (B) to give me (C) a lot of advices (D) about how to pass the driving test.
8. (A) I told him, “(B) I have not (C) been told (D) these news”
9. (A) The man was hung as punishment (B) for murdering (C) his five children (D) and his wife.
10. (A) I made him (B) to confess that (C) he copied your answer (D) during the test.
Answers 1. A 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. A 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. B
Error identification – Extra practice exercises. Decide which part of the sentence is grammatically incorrect. Then look at the answers below.
I enjoyed study geography at school and now I’ve enrolled at the Economics Faculty.
I used to be keen of all scientific subjects but now I would prefer to study art.
I want meet your sister when she comes to see you – she sounds very nice.
My friends tell the English exam is quite difficult but I’m not worried.
The tickets, which are extremely good value, can be buy from large supermarkets.
The number of people which asked for the discount was low but grew during the summer period.
He wanted always to be a doctor and after doing medicine he now works in a hospital.
The informations they gave us was not very helpful so I consulted the website instead.
There isn’t many time, do you think we should get a taxi to the exhibition centre?
He graduated in languages in June and is now thinking of do a second degree in psychology.
The policeman showed us an identikit picture of the man who steal the car.
How long does it take to get the station on foot from your house
I was so angry that I took the watch broken to the jewellers to get my money back.
He rang me this morning for tell me that he had passed his driving test.
I won’t be able to go on holiday this year unless I will get a part-time job.
It was so nice day that they decided to have a picnic in the field.
I haven’t never seen anybody who rides a horse so well before.
My boyfriend always takes me to see horror films, but I don’t like very much.
We went to Guatemala last year so we were tired of the usual beach holiday.
I’ve gone to Marbella. I remember it well. A busy town with a nice modern promenade and picturesque ‘piazze’.
ANSWERS WITH EXPLANATIONS
I enjoyed studying (‘enjoy’ + ing)
keen on (keen + on = essere appassionato di)
want to (‘want’+ to + verb)
tell me (‘tell’ + person (me/you/him/her etc); nb. ‘say’non è seguito dalla persona)
can be bought (to be + past participle = passive)
who (relative pronoun ‘who’ = people)
always wanted (frequency adverb goes before the main verb)
the informations (information = uncountable noun)
much time (‘much’ with uncountable nouns, ‘many’ with countable nouns)
doing (‘ing’after a preposition)
stole (past tense of steal = steal stole stolen)
get to (preposition necessary; get to /go to /come to the station, BUT. arrive at/ reach the station)
broken watch (adjective before noun)
to tell me (to+base form = per/a scopo di)
unless I will get (1° conditional = if/unless/when + present)
such a (such a + noun; so + adjective)
I haven’t never (double negative)
l don’t like them (‘like’ + direct object)
as (as = siccome; so = quindi)
I’ve been to Madrid (use ‘been’ not ‘gone’ se sei stato e tornato)

 

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